Graphic Organizers

Graphic Organizers are two dimensional visual representations, including flowcharts, timelines, and tables, that show relationships among concepts or processes by means of spacial position, connecting lines, and intersecting figures. 

When Should Graphic Organizers be used?

Graphic Organizers are most effective when used after initial exposure to content. It is best to not use them during the introduction of new concepts. 

Best practices when using Graphic Organizers:

Allow students to choose their own organizers.

Avoid giving out copies of graphic organizers.

Build prior knowledge before asking students to complete a graphic organizer.

Continue to use the organizer as learning tools. 


Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2018). The uses and misuses of graphic organizers in content area learning. The Reading Teacher, 71(6), 763-766.

Moorf, D. W., & Readence, J.F. (1984). A quantitative and qualitative review of graphic organizer research. The Journal of Educational Research, 78(1), 11-17.

Nesbit, J.C. & Adesope, O. O. (2006). Learning with concept and knowledge maps: A meta- analysis. Review of Educational Research, 76(3), 413-448.